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Fight for Sight

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Research organization supports student's work with pediatric cataracts

Salma Al Saai works in the lab

Doctoral student Salma Al Saai conducts genetic research on the cause of congenital cataracts, which cloud the lens of the eye in babies..

A baby who is born with cataracts or develops them in the first year of life faces an array of challenges that dont confront an adult with the condition, in which the lens of the eye becomes cloudy and obscures vision.

Older cataract patients, especially in developed countries, generally undergo a relatively routine outpatient surgery in which the clouded lens is removed and replaced with a clear artificial lens, restoring their vision. But for babies, whose eyes and brains are still developing, cataract surgery is a more complicated process.

There are a lot of things to consider: What is the best age to do surgery? What is the best lens to use? And then, for children in poor areas, thats another level of challenge, said Salma Al Saai, a doctoral student at the University of Delaware. So, its really critical to find a way to prevent congenital cataracts in the first place.

Al Saai is conducting genetic research with the hope that such preventive measures might be possible in the future. Her work got a boost recently with the award of a highly competitive summer scholarship from the Fight for Sight organization, which is supporting one aspect of the project.

Her research is focused on a specific genetic mutation that causes congenital cataracts defined as those that occur at birth or before a babys first birthday.

A mutation in the gene she is studying has been known for some time to cause infertility in male mice. In 2011, Salil Lachke, associate professor of biological sciences at UD, published a paper connecting the same gene to congenital cataracts. Other researchers have since also identified the genes connection to cataracts.

Al Saai works in Lachkes lab, studying the way cataracts develop in the lens when the mutated gene is present. Her summer project supported by Fight for Sight examines a particular protein to determine what changes in that protein cause the genetic mutation.

Im trying to understand the function of that gene, she said. This is basic science, learning more about the lens and how it changes from clear to cloudy.

Any intervention to prevent cataracts is probably some distance in the future, she said, but you never know where basic science will lead.

For Al Saai, her passion for scientific research is grounded in the desire to help improve human health. A native of Yemen, she grew up in the United Arab Emirates and earned her bachelors and masters degrees there and in Oman, conducting research on malaria.

That work then brought her to the United States, where she continued studying the disease at a research institute in Texas. Malaria, which killed more than 400,000 people, most of them children in Africa, in 2017, is increasingly developing resistance to drug treatments.

What Im looking for is the chance to do good research that can contribute to human health, Al Saai said. The idea that you can change somebodys life moving them from pain to healingthats my motivation. It inspires me. 

Now in her fifth year at UD, she expects to complete her doctoral work in the 2019-20 academic year and is also pursuing a graduate certificate in bioinformatics. After that, she plans to continue conducting research, either in academia or another setting.

Article by Ann Manser; photo by Kathy F. Atkinson

Published Aug. 2, 2019

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Doctoral student Salma Al Saai is conducting research into a genetic mutation that causes congenital cataracts, a clouding of the eye's lens that is especially serious in children.
8/13/2019
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