also described Murad, who was a victim of war crimes and refused to
stay silent, becoming a strong advocate against sexual violence and
often bonding with other survivors by publicly sharing her own story.
Physiology or Medicine
A. Lachke, associate professor of biological sciences, spoke about the
work done by James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo, winners of the 2018
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
These laureates "released
the brakes of immunity" as they discovered "a landmark in our fight
against cancer," the Nobel organization said in announcing the prize.
explained how the body's immune system works, attacking infection when
needed but then switching itself off when the threat is gone. For years,
he said, researchers have wondered how to stop this braking mechanism
in the case of cancer and instead keep the immune system active so that
it can attack tumors.
"The challenge is that there are 20,000
genes in the human genome, and you have to identify the specific ones"
that deactivate the immune system and then figure out how to interrupt
that process, Lachke said.
Allison and Honjo were each able to
work with specific proteins that operate as brakes on the immune system,
resulting in new approaches for cancer treatment that have proved to be
conducted by this year's recipients of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry
also has resulted in important new medical treatments, including cancer
drugs, as well as novel methods of manufacturing such chemical
substances as pharmaceuticals.
Sharon Rozovsky, associate
professor of chemistry and biochemistry, discussed this work done by
Nobel Prize in Chemistry laureates Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith
and Sir Gregory P. Winter.
Arnold was looking for a way to use
enzymes ("the catalysts of life") instead of traditional chemistry to
create products in a more environmentally friendly way, Rozovsky said,
and she devised a method of protein engineering that mimics natural
selection to evolve enzymes.
The result, known as "directed
evolution," was used by Smith and Winter in their work. Smith developed a
new method called phage display to evolve new proteins, and Winter used
that method for the directed evolution of antibodies, which are
proteins that work with the immune system.
antibodies led to a revolution in the medical field," Rozovsky said.
"The pharmaceutical landscape has shifted to biologics," with the most
of the top-10 best-selling drugs now developed from antibodies.
The drugs treat autoimmune and other serious diseases, including some metastatic cancers.
"We can now treat cancers that used to be considered terminal," Rozovsky said.
Seidman, Chaplin Tyler Professor of Economics, explained the work done
by William D. Nordhaus and Paul M. Romer, who will receive the Sveriges
Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
two economists have done pioneering work in ways to integrate
innovation and the effects of climate change with economic growth and
Seidman particularly described Nordhaus' approach to
addressing climate change, emphasizing his in-depth consideration of the
many disciplines that factor into this complex subject. While most
economists might avoid academic research in physics, chemistry and
public health as outside their field, Nordhaus has studied that research
in detail, he said.
As a result, he's been able to create a
quantitative model to look at the costs of climate change and the
economic measures that can be taken—such as a carbon tax on
manufacturers who emit greenhouse gases—to address the problem. His
model, Seidman said, can be used to calculate a possible optimum tax
that would limit climate change while maintaining growth.
"Just like people do in everyday life, you have to weigh costs and benefits," and Nordhaus' calculations do that, Seidman said.
also explained Romer's work in developing a theory explaining how new
knowledge stimulates growth. That work has led to a great deal of other
economic research on regulations and policies that encourage new ideas.
C. Walker, professor of physics and astronomy at UD, studies the
physics of atoms in ultra-high-intensity laser fields, light whose
intensity is billions and billions of times more intense than sunlight
At the symposium, Walker brought his expertise to a
discussion of the work done by Arthur Ashkin, Gérard Mourou and Donna
Strickland, winners of this year's Nobel Prize in Physics.
Walker explained that the laureates' work has revolutionized the field of laser physics with groundbreaking inventions.
invented what the Nobel organization called "optical tweezers that grab
particles, atoms, viruses and other living cells with their laser beam
Strickland and Mourou opened the door to ultrafast and
intense laser pulses. The new technique they developed for
high-intensity lasers has been used in millions of eye surgeries that
are performed every year. Its many other potential applications are
still being explored.
Walker also summarized some of the traits
that he said many Nobel laureates share: "These are professors who
teach. … They are colleagues who encourage others. … They are modest and
great at the same time."
More information is available about the Nobel Prizes and this year's laureates at this website.
Article by Ann Manser, with information from the Nobel Prize organization; photos by Evan Krape